Alamo Plaza: A View From the 1909 Bar

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Panoramic shot of view from 1909 Bar. Photo by Brantley Hightower.

Panoramic shot of view from 1909 Bar. Photo by Brantley Hightower.

Brantley Hightower, AIA LEED AP

Trinity University may not have a formal architecture program, but students in its Urban Studies and Art and Art History departments often have an overlapping interest in how the built environment is designed.  Although they may not start with the same depth of technical knowledge that more traditional architecture students have, they bring to the table a fresh perspective.

Their broader exposure to fields such as sociology and anthropology provide them with an intuitive understanding that a new building is not the only solution to an architectural issue.

One of the first tasks for a studio professor is to define the “problem” the students will tackle over the course of the semester.  On a recent evening, Margaret Sledge and I met at the 1909 Bar and Bistro to discuss this very topic.  Located immediately adjacent to the lobby of the Hotel Indigo, the small bar offers a commanding view of the corner of Alamo and Houston Streets in downtown San Antonio.  This view gave us pause as we discussed the upcoming semester.

Panoramic shot of view from 1909 Bar. Photo by Brantley Hightower.

The 1909 Bar offers views to the Hipolito F. Garcia Federal Building, Alamo Plaza and the Tomb Rider 3D interactive adventure ride. Photo by Brantley Hightower. (Click photo for larger image.)

The name of the bar refers to the year the building in which it is located was built.  The Gibbs Building was constructed as an eight-story office building of glistening white glazed brick and terra cotta.  Before it began to be converted into a hotel in 2006, it had the unique distinction of being the last building in San Antonio to still employ elevator operators.

Across Alamo Street sits the recently renovated and renamed Hipolito F. Garcia Federal Building and U.S. Courthouse.  Initially completed in 1937 using Depression-era Federal WPA funds, the building’s Beaux-Arts architecture may seem familiar to graduates of the University of Texas.  This is no coincidence since the Philadelphia architect Paul Cret acted as the design consultant for both the Federal Building and many of the most iconic buildings on UT’s Austin campus.

Hipolito F. Garcia Federal Building and U.S. Courthouse. Photo by Brantley Hightower.

Hipolito F. Garcia Federal Building and U.S. Courthouse. Historians generally agree that Colonel William B. Travis died on this spot on March 6, 1836. Visitors to the site have absolutely no way of knowing this. Photo by Brantley Hightower.

1892 U.S. Courthouse and Post Office. Photo courtesy the Albertype Company.

Seen in this 1892 photograph, the original United States Courthouse and Post Office was demolished to make way for the 1937 Hipolito F. Garcia Federal Building. Photo courtesy the Albertype Company.

The 1889 United States Courthouse and Post Office that had previously occupied the site featured fanciful turrets, towers and arcades of granite and sandstone.  The building was designed by an architect out of Washington DC, but a young local practitioner by the name of James Riely Gordon acted as the on site superintendent of the project.   Gordon’s local perspective helped adapt the design to the particularities of the project’s location and climate.  The ultimate success of the building also helped launch Gordon’s career.  He would go on to design many of the most well-loved courthouses in Texas including the one for Bexar County.

Across Houston Street from the Courthouse sits Alamo Plaza.  The plaza roughly approximates the space originally enclosed by the stone walls of Mission San Antonio de Valero.  But from the corner of Alamo and Houston, much of the plaza is obscured behind the 60 foot tall marble sculpture knows as the Alamo Cenotaph.  The work is officially titled “The Spirit of Sacrifice” and was designed in the 1930s by the Italian sculptor Pompeo Coppini as a formal memorial to the Texan fighters who died there. The boot-shaped monument depicts a towering angelic figure while a high-relief frieze at its base depicts the iconic defenders of the Alamo – Travis, Bowie, Crockett and the rest – who “perished in the flames of immortality.”

The solemnity of the cenotaph is juxtaposed against the existence across the street of Tomb Rider 3D, an “interactive adventure ride” that simulates a journey through the haunted tomb of the Egyptian god Anubis.  Why an Egyptian god would need a tomb and why it would be in San Antonio is never really explained, but what is clear is that the ride has nothing to do with the 189 defenders of the Alamo who are memorialized by the cenotaph.

The stark contrasts among these multiple elements – all of which are clearly visible from the 1909 Bar – is emblematic of the odd state of Alamo Plaza today.  It exists at the intersection between the noble desire to memorialize and the base desire to commercialize.  This issue goes beyond the ongoing controversy regarding the mismanagement of the Alamo site by the current stewards of the shrine and raises a much larger strategic question about what Alamo Plaza should be and how it should interact with the city that surrounds it. The Plaza today exists as a remarkably underutilized piece of the city fabric.  It does a surprisingly poor job of foregrounding the Alamo itself, causing countless tourists to inquire about the location of the Alamo even when they are but a few dozen feet from it.  The Plaza is what it always has been, but it is by no means a great public space.

The main gate to Alamo Plaza

A representation of the main Alamo Plaza gate as it stood in 1836, one of several demonstration projects of the August 2012 Better Block Alamo Plaza Project. Photo by Iris Dimmick.

This criticism may seem odd to direct toward the top tourist attraction in the state, but the current form of the Alamo is less the result of conscious design effort than an artifact of the collision of commerce, politics and selective memory.  But what if that was not the case?  What if the experience were to be redesigned?  What if San Antonio were to have the Alamo Plaza it deserved rather than the one it has now?  Recent efforts such as the Better Block Project have provided compelling hints into what Alamo Plaza could be while exposing the challenges of making the place appealing to both tourists and residents while at the same time respecting the multiple layers of history that the site represents.

This is no easy task, but it represents an ideal problem for a group of young designers to spend a semester addressing.

How the modern city interacts with history can be as compelling as the history itself.  Finding new ways to engage with the complicated stories of our past is not so much a problem to be solved but an opportunity to explore.  Margaret and I are looking forward to seeing the results of the explorations of our students. 

Brantley Hightower is the founder of HiWorks, an architecture firm located in the Pearl Brewery.  The architectural design studio he and Margaret Sledge will be teaching in the spring is called “Studio Trinity: Reimagining the Alamo”.


9 thoughts on “Alamo Plaza: A View From the 1909 Bar

  1. Thanks for writing this article for others who may not know about the Alamo Plaza’s future and the some of it’s historical background. It’s true we have visitors from all over the world to see our historical missions and the Alamo Plaza area does not resemble any culture heritage to the Mission San Antonio de Valero “The Alamo” as it was originally. I hope the plaza is redesigned to give the indigenous people and Spanish missionaries the justice they deserve for all their hard work they did to form a Spanish town in a valley near 2 sparking rivers, creating the acequias, farm and ranch land, all the while frequently attacked by nomadic natives who didn’t want to convert to the Spanish Realm. Alamo Plaza is where our city started and The Alamo is not just about the Battle as some people believe that’s what the Shrine is all about.

    • For me, one of the most compelling aspects of the Alamo are all the layers of history that exists in a single place. As you pointed out, Patricia, there is the story of the “Alamo as a Spanish Mission” which is as compelling (and complex) of a story as the “Alamo as Battle Ground”. Then there is the “Alamo as Abandoned and Neglected Structure” story, the “Alamo as Rescued and Preserved (sort-of) Shrine” story and the “Alamo as Cultural Icon” story. Any of these narratives would make the place meaningful but the fact they all exist at the exact same place is truly remarkable.

  2. Actually what you refer to as the Alamo is really the Alamo church. The Alamo itself takes in the entirety of the grounds that were within the walls of the compound. So when people ask where it is, they are probably standing in it rather than near it. I had not known until working on the Better Block at the Alamo that the walls are outlined on the streets and sidewalks on Alamo Street and Houston Street. Take note of the different paving marking the outlines of the walls the next time you’re down there. There’s even a marker on the Hipolito Garcia Building indicating where the Alamo walls stood. The Sons of the Republic did a tour of the grounds during Better Block,complete with re-enactors helping those attending to better understand the area. Hopefully your students will make these discoveries for themselves and also refer to the recent report from the Project for Public Spaces.

    • Lynn, I too learned more history of the Alamo compound from the tour the Sons of the Republic gave and my son loved the re-enactments which were his highlight! I didn’t hear that part of the tour about the paving marking the outlines and I have never really noticed them… So I wish the City and the students working on this report project would consider that the current markers are not sufficient and also uncover the street where the graves are paved over to give the natives their dignity.

    • And the funny thing about the Alamo Church is that it never really operated as such. As I’m sure you already know, the original church collapsed in the mid-1700s and its replacement was never completed before the Mission was abandoned in 1793. It was already a ruin by the time of the “Battle of the Alamo” in 1836.

      But you are right in that there are bronze markings on the sidewalk that illustrate where the original mission walls of the Alamo once stood. For me they act as a reminder of how little is left of the original complex known as “The Alamo.”

  3. Thank you for the article, Brantley. I look forward to seeing the students work. Great topic and hopefully we will see The Alamo Plaza in a different way like Better Block and Complete Streets. Awesome!

  4. It’s interesting that those industries and corporate profiteers that wish to come in to a region or area and set up shop for profit, often spout this buzzword: “underutilized”

    The Alamo Plaza that San Antonio “deserves” is one that honors the individuals who perished their, against overwhelming odds, in the face of near-certain death. The Alamo is a shrine, it’s not a tourist opportunity.

    These city masterminds are too eager to “pull the cart before the horse.” You don’t just re-invent a cultural landmark because it’s convenient to do so and can bring more profit per square foot. The Alamo does not need coffee shops, evening dinner parties, wi-fi or modern accoutrements. It needs to be respected for what it is and acknowledge for all of the benefit it has brought to San Antonio because of its name and existence, not the other way around.

    The City is so eager to throw millions upon millions of dollars at new projects, like plastic surgery for an aging beauty queen. Hemisfair? We don’t know what we’re doing and have had 44 years to mess with it, but let’s tear it up and put in a playground for local kids?!

    Really San Antonio? This is what it has come to? We are the #1 tourist destination in the State of Texas, the 7th, 8th? largest city in the country and we have such an ignored step child mentality.

    We need to be capitalizing on our assets, not reinventing what we think is wrong with us.

    — Hemisfair Park “redevelopment” They are making it up as they go along. they are prancing around with a slideshow showing “community space” and “interactive art” and “playgrounds for kids”. Meanwhile, our economy absolutely lives and dies by the tourist trade and conference-goers. Why not implement something that caters to the people that are actually paying the bills? The thousands staying in the downtown hotels within walking distance of Hemisfair.

    — Alamo Plaza…. I’m not saying its an orchestrated whack job against the current management, but it is kicking them while they are down. If the City was serious about making that area of downtown more convenient and amenable to tourism, they’d get rid of the freaking freak show, dime-a-dozen, novetly businesses that litter that street. Ripleys? Wax Museum? Haunted House? generic-franchise-in-a-box-from-any-metropolitan-area? No thanks. Stay classy Alamo Street!

    yes, SA, let’s fast track more development for the sake of development, increase that revolving door between local big builders and City Hall, and maybe earn a few Councilmen some brownie points with the local money?

    Fix what’s not working, don’t go tearing up downtown because projects like the Pearl (outside of downtown) are making big profits for others.

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